The History of CSPA
Following is a chronological list of skydiving related events which occurred during history, both in Canada and worldwide. If there are erroneous or omitted events please submit corrections to CSPA. Years Events 852 Armen Firman jumped from a tower in Córdoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts to arrest his fall with only minor injuries. 1306 Chinese acrobats attached to parachutes jumped off towers. 1470 Historian Lynn White discovers an anonymous Italian manuscript that depicts two parachute designs, one similar to DaVinci’s, the manuscript appears to originate from this era. 1483 Leonardo DaVinci designed a parachute, shaped like a pyramid, that employed several features used in present day parachutes. There is no proof that it was ever tested by him! 1590 - 1690 Galileo and Newton discovered the principle of relative falling speeds and the principle of terminal velocity. 1595 Fausto Veranzio jumped from a tower in Venice, using a canvas covered framework as a parachute, and landed safely. 1783 Louis Sebastien Lenormand experimented with parachutes as a means of escaping from burning buildings. He constructed his own parachute and successfully jumped from the tower of the Parisian Observatory. He also invented the name “Parachute”. 1783 Jean Pierre Blanchard starts experimenting with drop testing animals, including his own dog, in a basket which is connected to a parachute. 1785 After successful results of the test drops, Jean Pierre Blanchard starts jumping himself. He performed his jumps in England and his greatest success was a jump from 2400 m. 1797 Jacques Garnerin made the first recorded parachute descent. His parachute was attached to a balloon and he rode in a basket suspended under the parachute. He was cut loose from the balloon 600 m (2000 ft.) over Paris and landed safely. His parachute was umbrella shaped, first one designed like this, the rest were pyramid shaped. Revolutionary was the fact that the parachute wasn’t constantly open. His parachute design suffered from severe oscillations caused by compressed air. 1799 Garnerin's wife, Jeanne-Genevieve Garnerin became the first woman to make a parachute jump. She performed parachute exhibition jumps all over Europe including an 8000 ft jump in England. 1802 Garnerin’s friend Laland solved the oscillation problem. He found it was necessary to make a hole in the middle of the canopy. This was rectified and the oscillations stopped. 1804 A Frenchman named Bourget used a collapsible parachute when jumping in Germany. Up until this point, parachutes were made with a wooden construction, this construction kept them open. 1808 Kuparento, a Polish aeronaut, jumped from his burning balloon over Warsaw and became the first man to save his life by parachute. 1837 First fatal incident occurred when Robert Cocking’s cone shaped parachute collapsed after jumping from a height of 1700 m. 1885 Thomas Baldwin, an American, introduced a collapsible silk parachute (in USA). All previous parachutes had been rigid in design.(Performers of this era closely guarded their secrets, so the same development in parachute history could be invented separately at different times.) 1887 Thomas Baldwin invented the first parachute harness. 1890 German “exhibition jumpers”, Paul Letteman and Kaethe Paulus perform, for the first time, the use of a parachute packed in a sack. Leo Stevens made a jump a Niagara Falls. He was described as ‘narrowly’ missing the gorge. 1895 Leo Stevens made a jump in Montreal and is claimed to have landed on the spire on Notre Dame Cathedral. It seems that Stevens may have had some problems with accuracy. 1903 The Wright Brothers made the first powered flight and parachute development picked up speed. 1908 Leo Stevens designed a parachute, which could be opened by the jumper by pulling a rope. His canopies had 16 Italian hemp lines 15’ long and two 13’ center lines to increase the projected diameter. Bobby Leach made a parachute descent from the 200-ft Upper Steel Arch Bridge in front of 3000 spectators becoming the fourth person to do so. The parachute was attached to a raised pole in the center of the bridge, and Leach sat on a small platform. Wind blew the parachute from its fastening device twice before Leach was able to jump. The stunt was performed with a Leo Stevens’ chute with two large advertisements. Leach made $150 for the jump. 1910 The pilot chute principle was developed by Pinto, an Italian inventor. 1912 Thomas Benoist wanted to promote a parachute jump from an airplane, Captain Albert Berry was the professional parachute jumper to take on the event. On March 1, from a Benoist ‘pusher’ biplane, Berry made the exhibition jump at Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis. The jump was repeated on March 10th. Leo Stevens was able to demonstrate his ‘Life Pack’ with his test jumper Rodman Law jumping from Harry Brown’s hydroplane. This was the first hydroplane jump. Previous to this, during the same year, Rodman Law did a static line jump from the torch of the Statue of Liberty. He also jumped from the Brooklyn Bridge and the Banker’s Trust Building. Grant Morton was most probably the first man to jump from an airplane, in a Wright Model B over Venice Beach. Morton had a rough jump and disappointed the crowd. He was contracted to do the first jump in Canada but he was a no show. An American, Charles Saunders, made the first parachute descents in Canada from a Wright biplane. He took off and landed in Hastings Park, Vancouver, B.C., in conjunction with an airshow held there. 1913 Georgia “Tiny” Broadwick became the first woman to jump from a moving aircraft. Štefan Banic from Slovakia registered the first modern parachute patent. 1914 Georgia “Tiny” Broadwick, an American lady barnstormer, became the first person ever to make a freefall jump. The static line is caught on the tail of the Martin trainer aircraft on her fourth jump. She cut the line and pulled it herself thereby claiming the first jump on a manually operated parachute. Unfortunately, the claim is contested. (She subsequently made more than 1000 jumps). 1916 Airplanes started to get fitted with parachutes so pilots have the possibility to save their lives in case of danger. Parachuting began to grow in popularity; some French jumpers started jumping for fun. 1919 Leslie L. Irvin made the first military freefall jump, exiting at 450 m. (1500 ft.) over McCook Field, Ohio. He used a 28' Flat Circular canopy in a 4 Pin Container and jumped from a de Havilland DH-9 biplane. Frank Ellis, a well-known pioneer in Canadian aviation, using a parachute borrowed from Leslie Irvin became the first Canadian to jump in Canada. On July 4th, Mr. Ellis exited a Curtis JN4 "Jenny" aircraft, flown by a Don Russell, over Crystal Beach, Ontario. He landed in Lake Erie, using an inner tube for flotation, and was picked up by a pleasure boat. 1922 The Catepillar Club was formed. Admittance into the club was simple; any person who jumped from a disabled aircraft with a parachute became a member. Later that year, Leslie Irvin agreed to give a gold pin to every person whose life was saved by one of his parachutes. 1926 James Clark made the first camera jump. 1927 Security Parachute Co. was established as Johnny’s Parachute Loft at the Oakland Airport. Switlik Company began making parachutes in Trenton, New Jersey. 1929 The quick release box was patented in Great Britain, making the single point release harness possible. 1930 Soviet sport parachutists competed in an accuracy competition at a sports festival in that country. 1934 Stanley Switlik and George Palmer Putnam, Amelia Earhart's husband, built a 115 foot tall tower on Stanley's farm in Ocean County. Designed to train airmen in parachute jumping, the first public jump from the tower was made by Ms. Earhart on June 2, 1935. 1935 The first free-drop parachute tower, 125 feet high, was built in Hightstown, New Jersey. The DC-3 made its first flight. 1936 The U.S.S.R. already had 559 training towers and 115 parachute training stations. 1937 The Twin Beech made its first flight. 1938 Pioneer Parachute Co. was established and Floyd Smith designed a completely new line of parachutes. Nylon is invented by DuPont. 1939 During the winter, the military first used the group parachute unit (paratroopers). 1940 German airborne troops take Fort Eben Emael, hitherto considered impregnable, by a surprise assault and unlock the key to Belgium. First United States Army Airborne Test Platoon, coined the phrase “Geronimo” when jumping out of an airplane. Later discontinued by the jumpers requiring to count ‘onethousand, two-thousand, etc’. 1941 The Germans dropped 14000 paratroopers onto the island of Crete. 1942 Lieutenant I. M. Chisov’s IIyushin 4 was attacked by 12 German Messerschmits. Chisov bailed out a 21980 ft with plans to activate his parachute at 1000 ft to avoid his enemies above. He lost consciousness and failed to activate his parachute. He crashed at the edge of a steep ravine covered with 3 ft of snow. He awoke 20 minutes later with a concussion of the spine and a fractured pelvis. 1944 Major airborne assaults by the United States 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions precede by hours the invasion of German occupied France by Allied armies. Frank Derry applied his “Derry Slots” to some 28’ military reject canopies to bolster the dwindling Forest Service inventory. This was the first time surplus canopies were modified for steerability. Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade made a chuteless jump that wasn’t premediated, when he made an emergency exit after his Lancaster was shot down. He fell 18045 ft and survived without the use of a parachute. Pine trees and soft snow covered ground broke his fall. 1945 600 Parachutists of the United States 11th Airborne Division rescue over 2.100 U.S., British and Dutch prisoners, hours before they are scheduled to be killed by their Japanese captors, at Los Banos, the Philippines. Francis M. Rogallo invents the "Parawing". 1946 The concept of a steerable circular parachute was developed in England. Several small parachute clubs were formed in Canada by persons involved in parachuting during WWII. Lack of both knowledge and enthusiasm caused them to disband shortly after they were organized. 1947 Alden Y. Warner and Wilbur J. Craven designed the Capewell parachute release. Before this, parachutes weren’t easily disconnected from the harness and high wind jumps caused some paratroopers to be dragged to their deaths. 1948 The St. Catharines Parachute Club, Canada's oldest surviving club and forerunner of the Parachute Club of Canada, was formed. The F.A.I., acting on the request of a pioneer American parachutist, Mr. Joe Crane, formed an International Parachuting Committee (C.I.P.) to establish guidelines for international parachuting records similar to those for other aviation sports. Leo Valentin, the French "Birdman", had perfected the basics of controlled freefall, and could perform turns and barrel rolls in freefall. There were several American "Barnstormers" capable of controlled fall in the mid thirties, but they were generally very secretive about the tricks of the trade. 1949 Red Grant “the last of the birdmen” made his first jump with batwings and continued to use them until 1960. 1951 The first World Parachuting Championships were held in Yugoslavia. Five European nations were represented. Skydiving became an international sport. 1956 The Parachute Club of Canada (P.C.C.) was formed for the control and advancement of sport parachuting in this country. First President was Mr. L. G. Buton. French birdman Léo Valentin dies after the wings of his birdman suit strikes the tail of the aircraft. 1957 First sport parachute (J.A.Istel), based on Bernouilli's principle of physics and with zero porosity cloth, is designed and is later exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution. New "secret weapon" was introduced to North America that reduced opening shock. Jacques Istel and Lew Sanborn filed for a patent on the deployment sleeve. 1958 Joint U.S. and Canadian National Championships were held in Abbotsford, B.C. The first baton pass in North America was performed over Abbotsford, B.C. by two Americans, Lyle Hoffman and James Pearson. Canada was represented at the IV World Parachuting Championships in Czechoslovakia by Floyd Martineau of St. Catharines, Ontario. New "secret weapon" was introduced to North America that gave amazing control under canopy. Jacques Istel files for a patent on the three panel T and double blank steerable canopy modifications. 1960 Canada was represented at the V World Parachuting Championships by Daryl Henry, Mike Thouard, Glenn Masterson and Dave Coxall. Captain Joseph Kittenger, while working on Project Excelsior, sets a high altitude jump record of 102, 800 ft. which is still unbroken today (2007). 1961 The Western Canada Parachute Club, formed in 1956 and now merged with the Vancouver Skydiving Club, formed the Western Canada Sport Parachuting Association (W.C.S.P.A.) to co-ordinate activities and promote safety among the Western clubs. In France, M. Lemoigne developed the inverted apex "ascending parachute". 1962 The W.C.S.P.A. and the P.C.C. merged into one National Association, the Parachute Clubs of Canada. The "Canadian Parachutist" magazine was created. The Canadian Men's Parachute Team, consisting of Daryl Henry, Jim Noble, S. F. Wykeham-Martin, Glenn Read and Floyd Martineau, became the first team ever to set an international record during a world competition, averaging 1.76 meters in the Group Precision event. This was the first year that we entered a full men's Team, and Canada placed fifth overall. The Canadian Men’s Parachute Team won Gold in Men’s Team Accuracy, this was Canada’s first medal in international competition. Pierre Lemoigne of France invents the Para-Sail. 1963. Perry Stevens designed the Stevens Cutaway System (first reserve static line) on the Security Parachute Co. piggyback rig, the Crossbow. Eddy Grimm established a national record for individual altitude over the St. Catherines Parachute Club with a height of 17500 ft. 1964. "Pioneer" introduced the "Para-Commander" based on Lemoigne's design. Domina C. Jalbert devised the multi-cell gliding foil parachute canopy. Wykeham Martin, Paul Bouffard, Ray Parker and Richard Wilbur established a day group altitude record of 22700 ft after exiting a Beech 18 over the city of Brockville. 1965 Rod Pack, a stuntman, did a very controversial stunt on the first of the year. Pack made the very first intentional chuteless jump. The Twin Otter made its first flight. 1966 S. F. Wykeham-Martin became the first Canadian Aviation Sportsman to win an individual medal in world competition, placing second in the Individual Accuracy event. The men's team won the silver medal in the Group Precision event and the bronze medal for Overall Standing at the VIII World Championships in Leipzig, East Germany. "Irvin Industries" introduced the "Rogallo Wing" to sport parachuting. Steve Snyder began working on opening and stall problems on the parawing parachutes. David Barish introduces a gliding parachute, 1st of its kind, the Sail Wing. 1967 The P.C.C. became the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association (C.S.P.A.), a title which better represented the size to which the organization had grown. C.S.P.A. initiated a system to train instructors. David Barish develops the idea of foot launching (ground launching) for testing his Sail Wing paragliding parachute. Bill Hardman of Abbotsford, BC made 100 jumps in one day setting a new world record for most jumps in a day. Tom Cox was the recipient of the first CSPA Service award. 1968 Steve Snyder developed the P.C.R. system (Pilot Chute Controlled Reefing), making square parachutes practical for sport parachuting. Steve Snyders work on the Irvin parawing opening and stall problems developed the “Delta II” parawing parachute that Irvin manufactured. 1969 Unofficial Canadian Forces parachute team was formed and consisted of sport parachute qualified members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment under the authority of the Commanding Officer. June 21, Bill Hardman and John McGoldrich each make 150 jumps in a day establishing a new world record. Less than two weeks later, Steve Sutton in Ontario broke the world record by making 200 in a day on July 3rd. 1970 Carol Brand became the first Canadian female parachutist to win a medal in world competition, placing third Overall. The men's team won bronze medals in the Group Precision event , and for Overall standing. First ramair parachute for the sport market was produced, Paraflite Para-Plane. The Canadian Forces made an official team titled The Canadian Forces Parachute Team. The Canadian Forces Parachute Team attended the World Military Parachuting Championships in Fontainebleau, France and took home the Silver medal in Team Accuracy. Helmut Siepmann and Stu Duncan developed the first all Canadian parachute, the Lancer. It was a Paracommander type parachute and was produced in Bronte, Ontario. Lea Johnson, Ray Landers, Bill Hardman and Dave Adams established a night group altitude record of 15000 ft at Abbotsford, BC. 1971 The first all Canadian 10-way star was formed over Abbotsford, B.C., and due to the rapidly growing interest in this new dimension of parachuting, the "Canadian 10 Man Star Crest" was introduced. The Canadian Forces Parachute Team took on a new name, “Skyhawks”. George Sarson makes 210 jumps in a day establishing a new record for the most jumps done in 24 hours. A man with the pseudonym, D. B. Cooper, hijacked a Beoing 727 airliner. After receiving a ransom payout of $200000 and four parachutes, he jumped out of the 727 when it was flying somewhere over the Cascade Mountains. 1972 Steve Sutton won the Silver Medal in the Individual Accuracy event a the XI World Parachuting Championships, in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, U.S.A. Sergeant Jean Pierre Blanchet sets a new world record at Jean Chrysostome airport near Quebec City, Quebec for 232 jumps in 24 hours. Frank H. Ellis is awarded the Order of Canada Service Medal. 1973 The Hall of Fame of Parachuting is founded. Greg Yarbenet invented the slider to assist in reefing during opening on the single membrane Volplane parachute. 1974 Ten-way speed stars were introduced as a new competitive event at the Canadian National Championships. The First World Cup of Relative Work was held in South Africa. During construction of the CN Tower, construction worker Bill Eustache made a static line jump from a crane on top of the tower. The engineer in charge of the construction regrettably fired him as he couldn’t have people doing that. 1975 West Germany hosted the First World Parachuting Championships in Relative Work. Canada entered both a four and a ten-way team, and placed ninth overall. Jim Handbury brought a new parawing parachute, the ParaDactyl, to the market that utilized sliders for reefing. It was comparable to a ramair of the era. 1976 Pierre Forand won a bronze medal in the men's Style event and placed fifth in the men's Accuracy event. This performance won him the honor of second place in the "Absolute Overall Male Champion" category. This was Canada's best standing ever in this class of World competition. The “3-Ring” canopy release was designed by Bill Booth. 1977 The second Relative Work World Championships were held in Australia. A change from speed 10-way and 4-way to "Sequential" 8-way and 4-way competition was introduced. The Canadian Team placed first in the 4-way event, fourth in the 8-way event and first overall, for Canada's first gold medal standing. The 4-way team "Terminal Eyes" and the 8-eay team "Rocky Mountain High" were both from Abbotsford, B.C. After 22 years of having a nomadic existence, our C.S.P.A. National Office was given an office at the National Sports Federation Centre in Ottawa. "Canadian Parachutist" (C.A.N.P.A.R.A.) magazine was the recipient of the "Best Sports Journal" award from the Sports Federation of Canada. 1978 C.S.P.A. hired Duncan Grant as Technical Program Co-ordinator, to work full-time on technical, training, and safety programs and projects. Through his efforts and determination, C.S.P.A., with support from the Coaching Association of Canada, revised and further developed it's instructing program. The Canadian Parachute Team placed 14th overall in the XIV World Parachute Competition in Style and Accuracy held in Yugoslavia. Pierre Forand won the Silver Medal for Canada in the men's Style event. Para-Flite introduced the first ramair reserve, Safety Flyer. The largest Canadian Freefall formation was established with a 24-way in St-Andre, Quebec. 1979 The Third Relative Work World Championships were held in France. Nineteen countries participated. The Canadian Team placed first in the 4-way event and second in the 8-way event. This Canadian Team was "Rocky Mountain High". Team Captains were Kelly Dunn (4-way) and Mike Zahar (8-way). As a result of their outstanding performance, the Team was awarded the Dick Ellis Memorial Trophy by the Sports Federation of Canada, emblematic of the Canadian Amateur Team of the Year Award 1979. Richard A. F. (Buzz) Bennett, C.S.P.A.'s delegate to the F.A.I./C.I.P., was appointed to be Chief Judge at the XVth World Parachuting Championships, to be held in Bulgaria in August, 1980. The Instructor Assisted Deployment (IAD) system was first used in Canada. The Canadian Sport Parachuting Association initiates the Glenn R. Masterson Memorial Trophy to honour the memory Glenn R. Masterson who was a point in the sport of parachuting. John Chemello of Toronto was the first Canadian to receive the Leonardo Da Vinci Diploma from the FAI for outstanding service to parachuting 1980 Kathy Cox won the Gold Medal in Individual Accuracy at the XV World Parachuting Championships in Kazanlak, Bulgaria. Craig Winning won the Silver Medal in Individual Accuracy. The Technical, Training and Safety Committee was split into the Coaching Working Committee for training and the Technical Safety Committee for Technical and Safety matters. 1981 The Canadian Team "Auspex-8" and "Auspex-4" won the Silver Medal in both the 8-way and 4-way events at the IV World Championships of Relative Work in Zephyrhills, USA. R.A.F. (Buzz) Bennett served as an Event Judge. Mike Zahar participated in producing the skydiving stunts for the James Bond movies Kathy Fox received the Paul Tissandier Diploma from the FAI for services rendered to Parachuting and Aviation. Rob Laidlaw and Mike Zahar began development of the Progessive Freefall system in Claresholm, Alberta. C.S.P.A.'s Coaching Working Committee introduced the Levels 1 and 2 Technical Skydiving Coach in co-operation with the National Coaching Certification Program. It was the first of its kind in the world. Rob Laidlaw developed improvements in the IAD system by having the jumpmaster release the pilot chute with the jumper rather than holding it. 1982 Buzz Bennett served as Chief Judge at the XVI World Parachuting Championships in Czechoslovakia. The Canadian women's team won the Silver Medal in Team Accuracy. 1983 Canopy Relative Work is included at the Canadian Championships for the first time. As the V World Championships of Relative Work were held in South Africa, many nations were not allowed to attend by their home governments. Mike Zahar, Bill Knot and Buzz Bennett organized an FAI-sanctioned World Cup of Relative Work in Claresholm, Alberta that was attended by twelve countries. The Canadian teams "Go" and "Osmose" won both the 4-way and 8-way events respectively. Four of these team members, Mark Vincent, Rob Laidlaw, Daniel Paquette and Gilles LeBoeuf, have the distinction of being the only Canadians to win gold medals in both these events at a world meet. The 4-way team "Go" placed first at the U.S. National Championships. Buzz Bennett was elected as the first Vice-President on the International Parachuting Committee. Ted Strong designed and built the first tandem system. 1984 The XVII World Parachuting Championships were held in Lapalisse, France. At the World Cup of Relative Work, the Canadian Team "Orisse" won the Gold Medal in the 4-way event. The 8-way team "Cyclone" won the Silver. The First World Cup of Canopy Relative Work was held in Australia. The Canadian Team "Staggerwing" won the Bronze Medal in the 4-way rotation (or was it sequential) event. In recognition of their competitive performance of winning a gold medal at the WPC in France, the Canadian Team won a Canadian Achievement Award from the Sports Federation of Canada Kathy Cox received the Order of Canada for her achievements in Parachuting. Mike Zahar was instrumental in developing the Block & Random system of competitive 4 and 8-way Relative Work, which is still in use world-wide. Mike Zahar initiated the concept of Talent Identification and Farm Teams in RW training. Rob Laidlaw was responsible for implementing the program. 1985 The VI World Championships of Relative Work were held in Mali Losinj, Yugoslavia. The Canadian Team "Dealer's Choice" won the Silver Medal in 4-way, and the team "Fun" won a Bronze Medal in the 8-way event. R.A.F. (Buzz) Bennett received the Paul Tissandier Diploma for his contributions to Sport Parachuting. Mike Zahar received the Leonardo DaVinci Diploma for his consistent performance as a competitor. Kathy Fox received the Glenn R. Masterson award. Skydiving was listed as a demonstration sport at the Olympic Games. Ted Strong develops a drogue to slow tandem jumpers. 1986 At the XVII World Parachuting Championships in Turkey, R.A.F. (Buzz) Bennett served again as Chief Judge. The First World Championships of Canopy Relative Work was held. Bev Watson won the Silver Medal in the style event at the Adriatic Cup of Style and Accuracy in Sienna, Italy. The position of Signing Officer was replaced by Certificate Administrators and Logbook Examiners. 100-way attempts were organized for Vancouver's EXPO '86 International World Fair by Tom Piras, Rob Laidlaw and Bob Magee. Several 99-ways were built over Pitt Meadows, as well as one unofficial 100-way. The first official 100-way was built in Muskogee, Oklahoma. Shortly after, the record was broken by a 120-way in Quincy, Illinios organized by Roger Nelson 1987 The First World Paraski Championships were held in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Bev Watson became the Women's Overall World Champion. She also won the Gold Medal as the Women's Overall Champion at the European Cup in Zadar, Yugoslavia. The VII World Championships of Relative Work were held in Igassu Falls, Brazil. Canada was represented by a 4-way team. The Exhibition Jump Rating was created in Canada. The world record for largest formation was broken in Belgium. The new record was a 126-way. 1988 The XIX World Parachuting Championships were held in Sweden. Buzz Bennett once again served as Chief Judge. Lisa Olsen won the Gold in the women's Individual Accuracy event. CSPA moved its head office out of the National Sport Centre in Ottawa to Cathy Johnson's house in Navan, Ontario. As a result, the jobs of CSPA were decentralized in hopes of continuing to maintain good service to its members. At the Seoul Summer Olympic Games, a huge parachuting demonstration was performed for the Opening Ceremonies. Mike Zahar, Eileen Vaughan and Neal Houston were members of the international team jumping into the Olympic Stadium. The Second World Championships of Canopy Relative Work was held in France. The Canadian CRW Team "Plaid Jackets" placed fifth in the 4-way rotation event. A 144-way is built over Quincy Illinois, setting a new world record for largest formation. 1989 The VIII World Championships of Relative Work were held in Spain. Barry McAuley served as an 8-way Event Judge. The II World Paraski Championships were held in Austria. Bev Watson won the Silver Medal in the combined category. The World Cup of CRW was held in Indonesia. The Canadian CRW Team "Plaid Jackets" won the Gold Medal in the 4-way rotation event. The Basic Safety Regulations were revised. A student section was added with automatic activation devices and reserve static lines becoming mandatory for student training. Performance Designs introduced the Sabre parachute to the market. The Sabre parachute remained the benchmark for canopy performance for over a decade. 1990 The XX World Parachuting Championships were held in Bled, Yugoslavia. Buzz Bennett was elected Second Vice-President of the World Parachuting Committee. The III World Championships of Canopy Relative Work were held in Thailand. The Canadian Team "Plaid Jackets" won the Bronze Medal in the 4-way rotation event. The Canadian RW project (a 3 tiered project) reintroduced the talent identification and farm teams concepts. 1991 The IX World Championships of Relative Work were held in Lucenec, Czechoslovakia. Barry McAuley served as an Event Judge, and R.A.F. (Buzz) Bennett served as Chief of Judge Training. The Canadian Team "Cold 'n Ice" established a new Canadian 4-way sequential record by performing a 15 point skydive at this event. The Canadian Team "Plaid Jackets" placed second in the 4-way rotation event at the U.S. Nationals in Arizona. The III World Paraski Championships were held in Switzerland. Glen Derouin won a Bronze Medal in the Ski event. The largest Canadian Freefall formation was established with a 44-way in Goderich, Ontario. Domina C. Jalbert, the inventor of the Ram Air parachute, died in the summer of 1991 of natural causes The term "Relative Work" was officially changed to "Formation Skydiving" to be more whuffo friendly. Sandy Reid of Rigging Innovations develops the articulated harness. The Parachute Industry Association holds its first international symposium in Orlando, Florida. Kelvin Brundrett lost his life while trying to save two skydivers. After the exit Brundrett realized the two jumpers parachutes where entangled. He approached them and tried to correct the situation. Despite his courageous attempt, all three died in the accident. 1992 Robert Ledoux receives the Paul Tissandier Award. Kelvin Brundrett received the Glenn R. Masterson Memorial Trophy posthumously. A 2 point 100-way, organized by Tom Piras and Guy Manos was completed at Skydive Deland, Deland Florida. There were 12 Canadians on the load. Westaway Parachuting Enterprises Inc. obtained a TSO (the first for a Canadian manufacturer) for their Innovator harness container system. A Canadian Women's formation skydiving record was set in Pitt Meadows in August with a 14-way. In October, the record was broken with a 22-way in Newmarket, Ontario. At the 1992 Canadian Nationals, Cold'n'Ice established a new Canadian record by performing 16 points on a 4-way skydive in competition. In October, a 200-way organized by Guy Manos was completed at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. There were 16 Canadians on the load. 1993 The CWC and TSC published an updated "A" and "B" CoP exam (8 years after the last revision). Flying High Manufacturing Ltd. obtained a TSO for it's Sidewinder harness container system. The CWC published the new PIM 2A manual, 15 years after the last revision. Barry McAuley was appointed Chief Judge for the World Parachuting Championships in Eloy, Arizona. Kelvin Brundrett was entered on the Carnegie Hero Fund. The Carnegie Hero Fund was created to recognize the outstanding acts of heroism while risking their life to an extraordinary degree in saving or attempting to save the life of another person. 1996 Brian Germain develops and patents the AirLock for ramair canopies. Barry McAuley received Paul Tissandier Diploma. 1999 Cathy Johnson was awarded an honorary lifetime membership. 2000 Adrian Nicholas jumped an exact replica of Leonardo DaVinci’s parachute. The parachute was constructed from wood, canvas and rope. Its overall weight was 187 pounds. Richard “Buzz” Bennett received the Leonardo De Vinci Diploma. 2001 Barry McAuley received the International Olympic Committee Diploma. 2002 Cathy Johnson retired after 25 years of CSPA dedication. The CSPA Service award was renamed to the “Cathy Johnson Service Award”. 2005 Daniel Preston of Atair Aerospace developed magnetic closing method for parachutes (magnetic riser covers and other flap closures). New world record was established for the largest head-down formation with 53 parachutists in Perris Valley, CA (USA). Dave Brown and Chris Hayes were part of the record. New world record was established for the largest all female freefall formation with 151 parachutists in Perris Valley, CA (USA). Jean Aitken, Carol Barratt, Monique Careau, Nesta Chapman, Nathalie Gaudreault, Cindy Jardine, Rhonda Joyce and Robin Saunders were part of the record. New world Record for the largest all female head down formation was established with 18 parachutists in Ottawa, IL (USA). Sara Bennett was part of the record. 2006 Jason Moledzki established a new world record with a canopy piloting speed of 2.72 seconds on a 70 meter course in Vienna, Austria. New world record was established for the largest freefall formation of 400 parachutists in Udonthani (Thailand). Richard Bission, Liam Brennan, Rob Laidlaw, Giles Leboeuf, Michel Lemay, Daniel Paquette, Mario Prévost, Brian Wnuk and Robert Wright were part of the record. 2007 Jason Moledzki established a new world record with a canopy piloting distance of 150.72 m in Longmont, CO (USA). Jason Moledzki established a new world record with a canopy piloting speed of 2.684 seconds only to break it a day later with a speed of 2.564 seconds on a 70 meter course in Sydney, Australia.
Note: The History of skydiving was written by Jim Wilson. Jim has also provided photographs and illustrations.